Wednesday, August 19, 2009
Friday, July 10, 2009
An Introduction To Plastics
v1.0.1 / 01 jun 02 / greg goebel / public domain
* Plastics have become a universal material, used for everything from throwaway bags to wings for combat aircraft. Plastics are cheap, lightweight, strong, often attractive, and can be synthesized with a wide range of properties. This document provides a short introduction to plastics technology.
 NATURAL POLYMERS
 CELLULOSE-BASED PLASTICS: CELLULOID & RAYON
 BAKELITE (PHENOLIC)
 POLYSTYRENE & PVC
 SYNTHETIC RUBBER
 PLASTICS EXPLOSION: ACRYLIC, POLYETHYLENE, & ETC
 PLASTICS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
 COMMENTS & SOURCES
Sunday, May 04, 2008
TRIDENT RUBBER closely held family venture of brothers Kurian, Sebastian and Xavier , whose primary identity is that of being Christian work-place believers.
Therefore the Trident ethos of "work is worship" is based on the biblical prescription "whatever you do, work at it with all your heart, as working for the Lord, not for men ..." (St.Paul to the Colossians 3:23) What we do for the Lord cannot be less than the very best. The Trident vendors, staff and customers are one family.
The fellowship we enjoy is based on the cardinal principle that directs all activity at Trident - "do unto others what you would have them do unto you"
By Ben Bartlett and David Glenn
Organizing for Improved Quality and Marketing Power
Marketing was a priority interest of many of us who traveled to India and Thailand. We were curious to know whether world markets affected the commodity prices in India and Thailand, as they do here in the USA. In India we happened to arrive at a critical time for rubber producers. Key companies that buy raw rubber from the more than one million producers in India were reneging on agreements that set a minimum price level. They contented that imported rubber from Indonesia and Malaysia could be purchased cheaper now that India had to follow WTO policies. Rubber Board representatives (a governmental agency that provides research, extension and marketing assistance to Rubber Producers) were busy trying to share insights into the dilemma, as tempers were high among both producers and the general public.
India is the world’s fourth largest producer of natural rubber behind Thailand, Indonesia, and Malaysia. India is also the world’s fourth largest consumer of natural rubber behind the USA, China, and Japan. Unique in India, however, is the structure of production. Other countries rely on large plantations, but India’s rubber producers are smallholders, averaging less that ,5 hectare per family or just over 1 acre.
Because of the challenges of reaching so many farmers with research and extension services, India has organized its producers into Rubber Producer Societies (RPSs). Each society includes 100 or more producer families. These locally lead groups serve as clearinghouses for new technologies and marketing information while providing services such as group purchases of inputs and collecting or processing of latex. These groups are similar to cooperatives in the US. With the production capacity of the entire group, Producer Societies have hedged their prospects with volume processing and marketing. Groups of Producer Societies were also setting up small manufacturing businesses to add additional value to the raw product.
Our group visited the Rubber Board Headquarters in Kottayam, in the state of Kerala. Here we had a chance to meet some of the Rubber Board Officers, the equivalent of Michigan’s extension service. Following is a photo of the newly constructed Headquarters Training Center. Pictured are members of our Michigan traveling group and staff of the Rubber Board Extension Service.
Our traveling group divided into three small groups to make visits into the field. One group had the honor of being able to visit a tribal group (Kanikarri Tribe) near Trivandrum, the southern-most tip of India. Rubber is a new commodity for this group and nearly 60% of the families are now growing rubber trees. The tribe had only been into rubber production for a few years and was just now harvesting latex. They were already planning for the next step—adding value by establishing a processing unit.
We were amazed at the diversity of crops in this rich tropical ecology. Although holdings were small, farmers had diverse enterprises with rubber trees as well as legumes, mangoes, bees, tumeric, coffee, pineapple, coconut, pepper and other crops. This diversity has allowed farmers to diversify their earnings and markets….a great model for small farms anywhere.
Although rubber is a crop grown half way around the world, it provides some of the same challenges as milk or grain does for Michigan farmers....significant swings in prices, many small producers that sell to a limited number of buyers, and production and marketing challenges that are met by working together with the assistance of publicly funded advisors. So different--yet so similar!
Back to Themes
Wednesday, March 05, 2008
Monday, January 07, 2008
Light composite aircraft
Glass-reinforced plastic (GRP), is a composite material or fiber-reinforced plastic made of a plastic reinforced by fine fibers made of glass. Like graphite-reinforced plastic, the composite material is commonly referred to by the name of its reinforcing fibers (fiberglass). The plastic is thermosetting, most often polyester or vinylester, but other plastics, like epoxy (GRE), are also used. The glass is mostly in the form of chopped strand mat (CSM), but woven fabrics are also used.
As with many other composite materials (such as reinforced concrete), the two materials act together, each overcoming the deficits of the other. Whereas the plastic resins are strong in compressive loading and relatively weak in tensile strength, the glass fibers are very strong in tension but have no strength against compression. By combining the two materials together, GRP becomes a material that resists well both compressive and tensile forces. The two materials may be used uniformly or the glass may be specifically placed in those portions of the structure that will experience tensile loads.
2 House building
4 Chopped strand mat
5 Examples of GRP use
6 See also
7 External links
We take into account the cost and performance needs of our customers, and assess the complexity of the component before recommending the optimal material for the job. CME produces sheet moulding compound, dough moulding compound and glass mat thermoplastic, that meet the exacting needs of the widest range of industries and applications.• Sheet moulding compound - SMC• Dough moulding compound - DMC• Glass mat thermoplastic - GMT • Recycled Polypropylene - RCP
Sunday, December 09, 2007
3 Potential hazards in food contact applications
5 Interaction with other chemicals
What is POLYCARBONATE ?
Black ABS plastic pipes in use in a wet basement of a paper mill, in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. Corrosion is no problem for these plastic pipes. That is a big advantage. However, use of ABS in a Noncombustible building, as per Part 3 of the Ontario Building code, is another issue.
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, or ABS, (chemical formula (C8H8· C4H6·C3H3N)n) is a common thermoplastic used to make light, rigid, molded products such as piping, musical instruments (most notably recorders and plastic clarinets), golf club heads (used for its good shock absorbance), automotive body parts, wheel covers, enclosures, protective head gear, vballs [reusable paintballs], and toys including LEGO bricks. In plumbing, ABS pipes are the black pipes (PVC pipes are white) and also in Plastic Pressure Pipe Systems. ABS plastic ground down to an average diameter of less than 1 micrometer is used as the colorant in some tattoo inks. Tattoo inks that use ABS are extremely vivid. This vividness is the most obvious indicator that the ink contains ABS, as tattoo inks rarely list their ingredients.
It is a copolymer made by polymerizing styrene and acrylonitrile in the presence of polybutadiene. The proportions can vary from 15 to 35% acrylonitrile, 5 to 30% butadiene and 40 to 60% styrene. The result is a long chain of polybutadiene criss-crossed with shorter chains of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile). The nitrile groups from neighbouring chains, being polar, attract each other and bind the chains together, making ABS stronger than pure polystyrene. The styrene gives the plastic a shiny, impervious surface. The butadiene, a rubbery substance, provides resilience even at low temperatures. ABS can be used between −25 and 60 °C.
Production of 1 kg of ABS requires the equivalent of about 2 kg of oil for raw materials and energy. It can also be recycled.
ABS is derived from acrylonitrile, butadiene, and styrene. Acrylonitrile is a synthetic monomer produced from propylene and ammonia; butadiene is a petroleum hydrocarbon obtained from butane; and styrene monomers, derived from coal, are commercially obtained from benzene and ethylene from coal. The advantage of ABS is that this material combines the strength and rigidity of the acrylonitrile and styrene polymers with the toughness of the polybutadiene rubber. The most amazing mechanical properties of ABS are resistance and toughness. A variety of modifications can be made to improve impact resistance, toughness, and heat resistance. The impact resistance can be amplified by increasing the proportions of polybutadiene in relation to styrene and acrylonitrile although this causes changes in other properties. Impact resistance does not fall off rapidly at lower temperatures. Stability under load is excellent with limited loads.
Even though ABS plastics are used largely for mechanical purposes, they also have good electrical properties that are fairly constant over a wide range of frequencies. These properties are little affected by temperature and atmospheric humidity in the acceptable operating range of temperatures. The final properties will be influenced to some extent by the conditions under which the material is processed to the final product; for example, molding at a high temperature improves the gloss and heat resistance of the product whereas the highest impact resistance and strength are obtained by molding at low temperature.
ABS polymers are resistant to aqueous acids, alkalis, concentrated hydrochloric and phosphoric acids, alcohols and animal, vegetable and mineral oils, but they are swollen by glacial acetic acid, carbon tetrachloride and aromatic hydrocarbons and are attacked by concentrated sulfuric and nitric acids. They are soluble in esters, ketones and ethylene dichloride.
The aging characteristics of the polymers are largely influenced by the polybutadiene content, and it is normal to include antioxidants in the composition. On the other hand, while the cost of producing ABS is roughly twice the cost of producing polystyrene, ABS is considered superior for its hardness, gloss, toughness, and electrical insulation properties. However, it will be degraded (dissolve)  when exposed to acetone. ABS is flammable when it is exposed to high temperatures, such as a wood fire. It will "boil", then burst spectacularly into intense, hot flames.
 External links
ABS material description
Comparisons of many physical properties with other plastics
^ ABS - acrylonitrile butadiene styrene On Designsite.dk, lists applications. Retrieved 27 October 2006
^ Harper C.A., Handbook of plastic and elastomers, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1975, pp. 1-3,1-62, 2-42, 3-1
v • d • ePlastics
Polyethylene (PE)Polyethylene terephthalate (PET or PETE)Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)Polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC)Polylactic acid (PLA)
Polypropylene (PP)Polyamide (PA)Polycarbonate (PC)Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)Polyurethane (PU)
Polystyrene (PS)PolyesterAcrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)Polyoxymethylene (POM)
Friday, July 06, 2007
Chemical/Compound Compatability Chart
General Characteristics of Common Polymers
Design Services & Tooling
Rubber Molding - Compression
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Stock Rubber Products
Bumpers & Appliance Feet
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Request A Quote
Thursday, April 26, 2007
Viton® fluoroelastomer is the most specified fluoroelastomer, well known for its excellent (400°F/200°C) heat resistance. Viton® offers excellent resistance to aggressive fuels and chemicals and has worldwide ISO 9000 and ISO/TS 16949 registration.
We've developed many types of Viton® to meet specific end-use and processing needs. There are differences between types of Viton® in terms of chemical resistance and mechanical properties.
Whether your application is automotive, chemical processing or any number of other industrial applications, there is a particular type of Viton® that best meets your specific performance requirements. The general purpose types differ primarily from the specialty types in chemical resistance. In the specialty family, the choice is among four types that are tailored for superior fluid resistance, low-temperature performance or combinations of these properties. In order to ensure product integrity and compliance to OSHA 1910.119 in finished parts made of Viton®, our seal helps guarantee that the parts you receive are made from 100% virgin Viton® from DuPont Performance Elastomers.
Silicone rubber offers excellent resistance to extreme temperatures, being able to operate normally from minus 100°C to plus 500°C. In such conditions the tensile strength, elongation, tear strength and compression set can be far superior to conventional rubbers.
Silicone rubber has excellent high temperature properties. Organic rubber has a carbon to carbon backbone. This can leave them susceptible to ozone, UV, heat and other aging factors that silicone rubber can withstand well. This is why it is the material of choice in many extreme environments.
 Specialist grades
There are also many specialist grades of silicone rubber that offer the following qualities: Steam resistance, metal detectable, glow in the dark, electrically conductive, chemical/oil/acid/gas resistance, low smoke emission and flame retardant.
Once milled and coloured the silicone rubber can be extruded into tubes, strips, solid cord or custom profiles within the size restrictions of the manufacturer. Cord can be joined to make "O" Rings and extruded profiles can also be joined to make up seals. Silicone Rubber can also be moulded into custom shapes and designs.
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silicone_rubber"
Categories: Silicones Elastomers Sculpture materials
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SILICONE RUBBER PROPERTIES and SHELF LIFE
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - View as HTMLSuperior silicone tubing for medical, pharmaceutical and food applications ...... f) Storage & Shelf Life. Silicone compounds should be stored in a dry ...www.barloworld-scientific.com/internet/Download.nsf/directdownload/TALN6YTG28/$file/Esco%20Catalogue.pdf - Similar pages
SILICONE RUBBER PHARMA GRADE (21 CFR 177.2600)
USP CLASS VI BIOLOGICAL COMPATIBILITY TESTS
ASTM F2475-05 Standard Guide for Biocompatibility Evaluation of Medical Device Packaging Materials
can be purchased go here
bio compatibility testing at NORTHVIEW
The many unique qualities of neoprene make it useful in a number of popular products. One of the most popular and visible uses of neoprene is with wetsuits. In wetsuits, neoprene traps water between the wetsuit and the wearer's skin. Body heat warms the water against the skin, which works to reduce heat loss from the body. This reduced heat loss allows someone to comfortably stay in colder water for a longer time. It can also be quite buoyant in the water. Many sports enthusiasts use neoprene wetsuits, including scuba divers, surfers and windsurfers.
Neoprene wetsuits come in a variety of thicknesses, from very thin one-half millimeter (about 1/16 inch) wetsuits used to prevent abrasions and sunburns in tropical water to thick seven millimeter (about 1/4 inch) wetsuits used in cold water. Not surprisingly, the thicker the neoprene in a wetsuit, the more insulating it is. While the black head-to-toe wetsuit commonly seen on television is the image many people have of neoprene wetsuits, they come in any number of colors, sizes and styles. Neoprene wetsuits can dramatically slow heat loss in the water, allowing wearers to remain the water for much longer than they would be able to without one.
Outside of the water, neoprene has a number of other uses. Neoprene is resistant to many chemicals and oil, making it particularly useful for protective gloves and similar articles. Neoprene is used in some situations where abrasion can be a problem as well. It can be found on a number of products today, including protective covers for items such as cellular telephones. It is also lightweight. The diverse uses of neoprene help to explain its popularity in many products.
The versatility of neoprene rubber have made it a popular material in a number of items. Its many insulating and protective properties have made neoprene a household name, incorporated into products as diverse as scuba-diving gear to protective gloves.
Acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) is a family of unsaturated copolymers of 2-propenenitrile and various butadiene monomers (1,2-butadiene and 1,3-butadiene). Although its physical and chemical properties vary depending on the polymer’s composition of acrylonitrile (the more acrylonitrile within the polymer, the higher the resistance to oils but the lower the flexibility of the material), this form of synthetic rubber is generally resistant to oil, fuel, and other chemicals. Its resilience makes NBR the perfect material for disposable lab, cleaning, and examination gloves. In the automotive industry, it is used to make fuel and oil handling hoses, seals and grommets. NBR’s ability to withstand a range of temperatures from −40°C to +120°C makes it an ideal material for extreme automotive applications. Acrylonitrile butadiene is also used to create moulded goods, footwear, adhesives, sealants, sponge,expanded foams and floor mats. Compared to natural rubber, nitrile rubber is more resistant to oils and acids, but has inferior strength and flexibility. Nitrile rubber is generally resistant to aliphatic hydrocarbons. However (like natural rubber), it can be attacked by ozone, aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones, esters and aldehydes.
1 Production Process
2 Environmental Concerns
4 External links
 Production Process
In the production of hot NBR, emulsifier (soap), 2-propenenitrile (acrylonitrile), various butadiene monomers (including 1,3-butadiene, 1,2-butadiene), radical generating activators, and a catalyst are added to polymerization vessels. Within the vessel, water serves as the reaction medium. The tanks are heated to 30°C-40°C to facilitate the polymerization reaction and to promote branch formation in the polymer. Because several monomers capable of propagation the reaction are involved in the production of nitrile rubber, the composition of each polymer can vary (depending on the concentrations of each monomer added to the polymerization tank and the conditions within the tank). One repeating unit found throughout the entire polymer may not exist. For this reason, there is also no IUPAC name for the general polymer. The reaction for one possible portion of the polymer is shown below:
1,3-butadiene + 1,3-butadiene + 2-propenenitrile + 1,3-butadiene + 1,2-butadiene → acrylonitrile butadiene rubber
Monomers are usually permitted to react for 5 to 12 hours. Polymerization is allowed to proceed to ~70% conversion before a “shortstop” agent (such as dimethyldithioarbamate and diethyl hydroxylamine) is added to react with the remaining free radicals. Once the resultant latex has “shortstopped”, the unreacted monomers are removed through a steam in a slurry stripper. Recovery of unreacted monomers is close to 100%. After monomer recovery, latex is sent through a series of filters to remove unwanted solids and then sent to the blending tanks where it is stabilized with an antioxidant. The yielded polymer latex is coagulated using calcium chloride, aluminum sulfate, and other coagulating agents in an aluminum tank. The coagulated substance is then washed and dried into crumb rubber.
The process for the production of cold NBR is very similar to that of hot NBR. Polymerization tanks are heated to 5 °C–15 °C instead of 30 °C–40 °C. Under lower temperature conditions, less branching will form on polymers (the amount of branching distinguished cold NBR from hot NBR).
 Environmental Concerns
Acrylonitrile is considered an environmentally hazardous substance that cannot be freely ejected into the environment (it must be disposed through a rotary kiln, fluidized bed, liquid injection incineration, or underground injection). Because the compound is quite volatile and readily soluble in water, its release to the environment from waste sites is a concern. 1,3–butadiene is very reactive in the presence of hydroxyl radicals, and therefore possess high ozone creation potential. As mentioned previously, however, unreacted monomer recovery is nearly 100% in the process outlined above. Since unused monomers can easily be recycled, its disposal is not an unbearable concern. Thus, despite more stringent disposal restrictions, acrylonitrile butadiene rubber is produced throughout North America.
Because it is not crucial that every acrylonitrile butadiene polymer has one specific chemical structure (unlike polymers meant for ingestion, where small inconsistencies in chemical composition/structure have a pronounced effect on the body, the general properties of NBR are not altered by minor structural/compositional differences) quality control on its production is relatively lax. The production process itself is not overly complex; the polymerization, monomer recovery, and coagulation processes require some additives and equipment, but they are typical of the production of most rubbers. The necessary apparatus is simple and easy to obtain. For these reasons the substance is widely produced in poorer countries where labor is cheaper. Among the highest producers of NBR are Taiwan and China.
Satisfactory compatibility with fireproof hydraulic fluids, ketones, hot and cold water, and alkalis. Unsatisfactory compatibility with most oils, gasoline, kerosene, aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, halogenated solvents, and concentrated acids.
Hardness, Shore A
40 - 90
Tensile Strength, Ultimate
Elongation at Break
CTE, linear 68°F
Maximum Service Temperature, Air
Minimum Service Temperature, Air
 External links
Sunday, January 14, 2007
Rubber Consultants can assist with all aspects of mixing, compounding and processing of rubber.
Rubber Consultants has the expertise to select the most appropriate polymer, including fluoroelastomers, HNBR and silicone, to meet service demands.
It can provide formulations for:
specific methods of manufacture
physical properties or specifications, for example strength, heat resistance, compression set, abrasion resistance
specific service conditions such as oil exposure and dynamic loads
Formulations can be designed by statistical experimentation with interpretation of the results. Assistance can also be provided in evaluating and developing mixing processes and downstream processing procedures. This capability extends to thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs).
Rubber Consultants can:
supply compound for pre-production trials
carry out prototyping and small-scale manufacture
Rubber Consultants' extensive facilities include a range of mixers and mills, calenders, extruders, injection moulding machines, autoclaves and presses.
Rubber Consultants also offers consultancy services in the following aspects of elastomer technology, including contract research:
The recognized expertise of Rubber Consultants' scientists has enabled it to conduct successfully contract research over a wide range of topics allowing clients to further their R&D programmes. This expertise includes experience in running large internationally-funded projects.
The keynote is flexibility; contracts are often drawn up as phased programmes with interaction to determine the transition from one phase to another or redefinition of the later phases as appropriate.
The benefits found by clients include:
expert assistance in devising the programme of work
access to a wide range of skills
availability of a wide range of measuring and characterization techniques
The services of Rubber Consultants are particularly suitable for clients wishing to out-source all or part of their R&D effort.
Saturday, January 13, 2007
Rubber - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The major commercial source of natural latex used to create rubber is ... Synthetic rubber can be made as a polymer of isoprene or various other monomers. ...en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rubber - 38k - Cached - Similar pages
Welcome to the official web site of Rubber Board, India
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R U B B E R R E S E A R C H I N S T I T U T E O F I N D I A
International Rubber Research and Development Board (IRRDB)Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Association of Natural Rubber Producing Countries (ANRPC)Kuala Lumpur, ...rubberboard.org.in/rubberresearchinstitute.asp - 38k - Cached - Similar pages
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Rubber Certification Authority, an autonomous body of Government of India, conducting quality tests in rubber and allied products.www.irmra.org/ - 2k - Cached - Similar pages
Rubber Division Homepage
Provides for exchange of opinions, technical information and experience of those in the rubber and polymer-related industries.
Map of 4th Floor, 250 S Forge St, Akron, OH 44325-3801, USA
rubber.org/ - 21k - Cached - Similar pages
Rubber Expo 2007
Welcome to India Rubber Expo 2007. Pre-register yourself & avail Free entry to the exhibition. Register Now Contact Us ...www.indiarubberexpo.com/ - 20k - Cached - Similar pages
India Rubber Directory : Connecting Rubber People India - Rubber ...
India Rubber Directory Offers Information on India rubber industry, Rubber manufacturers, exporters, importers, rubber associations, rubber jobs and rubber ...www.indiarubberdirectory.com/ - 56k - Cached - Similar pages
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Manufacture rubber sheets and insertion, skirt boards, industrial rubber hoses, rubber mats, floor coverings, and rubber molded products.www.zenithrubber.com/ - 19k - Cached - Similar pages
tqmcintl Industry: Consulting Location: Mumbai : Maharashtra : India ISO 9001 QMS ISO 13485 ENGINEERING NEWS UP-DATE ISO 22000 Explosion protected not Flame proof WTO CRO ISO TQM Information Security Management and ISO 27001 Software QA ISO 17025 CE Marking ISO 14000 GMP requirements SA 8000 ISO 20000 COBIT COPC STANDARD Lean Six Siqma ISO 17021 5 S Energy Manager boiler and pressure vessels eSCM useful Reference tables ERP Management Consultant hotels and restaurants Fami QS Food borne diseases and infections storing food grains Halal and Kosher wet tissues ready made garmets marking Inspection, measuring and testing equipment